Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a majestic and highly endangered species found in South Asia. As an apex predator, it plays an important role in overall ecology. Much, however, still needs to be understood about this species. Prior to developing any effective conservation strategy, it is crucial to gather accurate data on a species. Conventionally used techniques such as camera traps have many limitations, such as extended field efforts (>40–50 days), difficulty in setting up cameras in dense forest habitats, and a high cost of field work. As an effective supplementary method, the use of non-invasive genetic techniques primarily based on scat (feces) samples have increased in recent years, providing a deeper understanding of the biology of many elusive and endangered species, including tigers. We have used these DNA techniques to understand the tiger and its habitat, uncover a wealth of information on sympatric biodiversity, and create a comprehensive tiger DNA database on a landscape level.